Royal Canadian Mounted Police

2022 Police Intervention Options Report

On this page

  1. List of charts
  2. List of tables
  3. List of acronyms and abbreviations
  4. Key highlights
  5. Preface
  6. Police intervention
  7. Incident Management and Intervention Model
  8. Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting
  9. Training
  10. Police intervention options data and trends analysis
  11. Oversight and accountability
  12. Current and ongoing initiatives
  13. Appendices
  14. Footnotes

The RCMP makes every effort to ensure the data included in this report is complete, accurate and up-to-date. Amendments are made as new information becomes available.

List of charts

List of tables

List of acronyms and abbreviations

CAPRA
Clients, acquire and analyze, partnerships, response, assess
CS
2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (also commonly known as tear gas)
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Key highlights

  • 99.9 per cent of all occurrences continue to be resolved without the application of a police intervention option
  • Overall, between 2010 and 2022 there has been a 38 per cent decrease in the application of police intervention options
  • The rate of application of police intervention options in 2022 (0.082 per cent) increased slightly from 2021 (0.076 per cent)
  • The most common occurrence resulting in the application of a police intervention option was assault on a police officer, at 18 per cent
  • Across Canada, an average of 67.5 per cent of occurrences where police intervention options were applied involved a subject perceived to be under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs
  • Across Canada, an average of 53 per cent of occurrences where police intervention options were applied involved a subject perceived to be in possession of a weapon
  • 15 per cent of subjects were transported to a hospital or clinic for treatment related to the application of police intervention options
  • A total of 44 officer-involved shootings, 27 non-fatal and 17 fatal, occurred in 2022
    • This is the highest rate of officer-involved shootings in the last 13 years
  • RCMP officers were shot at 24 times by subjects in 2022, which is a significant increase from 2021, where officers were shot at by subjects 18 times
    • This is the highest rate of RCMP officers being shot at in the last 13 years
  • The RCMP is continuing to collaborate with Canadian police chiefs to re-examine our current police intervention and de-escalation framework and move towards a refreshed model developed in consultation with the policing community, the provinces and territories, as well as Indigenous and racialized communities
  • The RCMP will continue to work in partnership with the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Use of Force Advisory Committee and external academic partners to establish national minimum standards on the use of force and to conduct a review of de-escalation training (for example, identifying evidence-based best practices) across Canada

Learn more

Learn more about the RCMP's strategy for modernizing the organization, including:

  • the collection and analysis of race-based data to address systemic racism and discrimination
  • the implementation of body-worn cameras for RCMP officers
  • updates to the RCMP's crisis intervention and de-escalation tools and training

Preface

To promote trust, transparency, and accountability in Canada, the RCMP is committed to open, proactive, and routine disclosure of police intervention option data. The following data and report captures the use of police intervention options in 2022, please see Disclosure of Police Information for previous reports on data since 2010. This report is in the same format as last year's release of police intervention option data which includes reporting on situational factors (for example, substance use, persons in crisis Footnote 1, weapons, gender) and provides provincial or territorial breakdowns. For additional context on the RCMP's provincial breakdown of police officers and occurrences, please see the RCMP Occurrence Report and Statistics Canada's report on Police Resources in Canada.

In any interaction with the public, RCMP officers are guided by the RCMP's Bias-Free Policing policy, which is based on the principles of equality and non-discrimination, as well as the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Canadian Human Rights Act, the RCMP Act, and the RCMP's mission, vision, and core values. Bias-free policing means equitable treatment of all persons by all RCMP employees in the performance of their duties, in accordance with the law and without abusing their authority regardless of an individual's race, national or ethnic origin, skin colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, marital status, family status, citizenship, socio-economic status, genetic characteristics, disability, or a conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.

In accordance with the RCMP's Bias-Free Policing policy, the RCMP's police intervention reporting (known as Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting) does not currently capture the racialized or ethnic identity of the subjects that officers interact with. However, during the former RCMP Commissioner Brenda Lucki's June 23, 2021 testimony before the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security, she committed to working with the Federal Privacy Commissioner to review this reporting practice with the goal of developing an approach to collecting and reporting race-based data for police interactions and interventions. Learn more about this initiative.

Former Commissioner Brenda Lucki also agrees that it is critically important in Canada for the public to feel protected by the police and is committed to take whatever steps are required to enhance trust between the RCMP and the communities we serve. Body-worn video provides increased transparency, while also providing a first-person view of what a police officer encounters, often in highly dynamic and tense situations. The RCMP continually reviews its policies, procedures and equipment to ensure it is using the most effective tools in law enforcement. We have reviewed previous research and studies to draw best practices to implement body-worn cameras across the RCMP, using a phased approach. We are working closely with the Office of the Privacy Commissioner to ensure any concerns they have are addressed. The RCMP has been engaging in work and discussions with policing partners and various organizations, groups, and community members across Canada to introduce body-worn cameras and to better understand concerns. Learn more about this initiative and the use of body-worn cameras by the RCMP.

Note

Brenda Lucki served as the RCMP's Commissioner from April 16, 2018, until March 17, 2023. At the time of publishing this report, Mike Duheme is serving as the RCMP's Commissioner (since March 17, 2023). This change in command will be reflected in upcoming reports.

Police intervention

Section 25 of the Criminal Code provides police officers with the ability to use force in the lawful execution of their duties, as long as they are acting on reasonable grounds. In other words, the use of force must be necessary, proportional to the threat level, judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene (not based on hindsight), and lawful (the execution of an officer's duties was in accordance with the law).

The RCMP is the primary police of jurisdiction for approximately 22 per cent of Canada's population and responds to approximately three million occurrences each year. Occurrences are calls for service or something that is self-generated by a police officer, like stopping a driver they believe is impaired. Applications of intervention options account for approximately one in every 1,226 RCMP occurrences, or 0.1 per cent of all occurrences. That means that 99.9 per cent of RCMP occurrences are resolved naturally or with communication and de-escalation. Importantly, the number of occurrences does not include the countless daily interactions police officers have with the public without incident (for example, some traffic stops, community involvement and engagement, school liaison officer functions, regular patrols, recruiting, etc.).

Communication is the preferred intervention for any situation and is to be used whenever tactically feasible, assuming it does not increase risk to the public and/or police. When communicating with an individual, police officers are taught to remain calm and in control, while providing clear direction. This allows time for the individual to respond, as well as time for the officer to determine how best to resolve the situation. While gathering information for assessing risk, verbal and non-verbal communication can be used to build a rapport with the individual. The use of communication, both verbal and non-verbal, can be extremely effective in resolving a situation.

When police are required to intervene in a given situation, it is, by nature, complex, dynamic, and constantly evolving, often in a highly charged atmosphere. It requires split-second, calculated decision-making, based on the officer's individual risk assessment. Sometimes these interventions are captured on smartphones or video surveillance systems. These videos often capture incidents from different viewpoints and perspectives. Context, background, previous information, or information provided to an officer prior to their arrival at an incident is not always captured. These are some of the many pieces of information that are processed by a responding officer in completing their risk assessment. Additionally, this information assists the responding officer in making a determination about the requirement to use intervention options, including the type or amount required, as well as ensuring that it is necessary, proportional, reasonable, and lawful.

Incident Management and Intervention Model

The Incident Management and Intervention Model is what RCMP officers use to assess and manage risk in all encounters with the public. It helps officers determine what intervention is needed by continually assessing risk, based on the totality of the situation. This includes tactical considerations, the officer's perceptions, situational factors, and the subject's behaviour(s). Whether it is verbal de-escalation or the use of an intervention option, the Incident Management and Intervention Model and its related training material assist officers in working through the decision-making process when it comes to interactions with the public. The Incident Management and Intervention Model is introduced in the second week at the RCMP Academy, Depot, and then integrated into all other relevant aspects of cadet training for the remaining 24 weeks. After leaving Depot, annual Incident Management and Intervention Model recertification training is mandatory for all officers. In April 2021, the RCMP updated the Incident Management and Intervention Model annual recertification training and the Incident Management and Intervention Model graphic to place more emphasis on communication, crisis intervention, and de-escalation. Crisis intervention and de-escalation now surround the graphic, emphasizing de-escalation as the preferred result of any interaction. Learn more about the Incident Management and Intervention Model.

Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting

To enhance accountability and transparency, in 2010, the RCMP strengthened its police intervention reporting requirements to include all intervention options. The Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting application was created to provide RCMP officers with a tool to assist them in properly explaining the circumstances in which police intervention options were used. A Subject Behaviour and Officer Response report captures occurrence information, environmental and situational factors, a description of the subject's behaviour and the officer's corresponding response, injuries, if any, to the subject and the officer, and a detailed description of how the event unfolded. It is important to remember that this information is based on each officer's individual perceptions at the time of the event, and what those perceptions meant to the officer.

Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reports are mandatory for all officers who apply or display:

  • physical control hard, intermediate weapons, firearms, police service dogs, specialty munitions, and/or "other" (that is, a weapon of opportunity)
  • physical control soft resulting in an injury to the subject, officer, or other person

All Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reports are reviewed at the supervisory level and further review and oversight is provided at the provincial or territorial level where the incident occurred. Nationally, additional oversight is provided and Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reports are periodically reviewed or audited for accuracy and adherence to policy. A Subject Behaviour and Officer Response report provides additional context around incidents where police intervention is used and provides statistical data on the prevalence of these types of encounters in relation to overall police occurrences.

Subject Behaviour and Officer Response data allow for evidence-based decision-making for the development of policy, training, and equipment. By examining Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting, we can determine areas that require further training and development, based on real-world encounters. This allows the RCMP to focus on areas with the greatest impact. As we work towards ensuring that frontline officers are as prepared as possible when situations arise that require them to physically intervene, it is always framed by the fact that the vast majority of our interactions with the public do not require physical intervention at all.

Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting also provides the RCMP with the opportunity to be transparent with the public when it comes to the use of police intervention options. Data from Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reports provide the information necessary to produce this report.

Training

In the interest of public and police safety, police intervention training is continually examined to determine best practices. Communication and de-escalation are invaluable tools in ensuring the public and police are as safe as possible; unfortunately, this does not always resolve a situation, and physical intervention may be required. The following sections outline some of the training that RCMP police officers receive in the areas of crisis intervention, de-escalation, and police intervention options.

Cadet training at Depot

The Cadet Training Program includes a problem-based curriculum designed to teach policing through integrated, realistic, life-like situations. It provides a dynamic, adult-focused learning environment. Learning activities include case studies, scenarios, role-playing, guided discussions, demonstrations, and practical exercises. The Cadet Training Program is an extensive 26-week basic training program broken down into the following disciplines: Applied Police Sciences, Police Defensive Tactics, Police Fitness, Firearms, Police Driving, and Drill and Deportment. The objectives of the Cadet Training Program are consistent with the RCMP's values, the Incident Management and Intervention Model training, and the operational framework known as CAPRA (Clients / Acquire and Analyze / Partnerships / Response / Assess), which is a problem-solving model to help define the competencies necessary for effective community policing.

At the beginning of training, cadets in the Cadet Training Program are introduced to CAPRA, the Incident Management and Intervention Model, negotiation, mediation, and conflict resolution. Both CAPRA and the Incident Management and Intervention Model training highlight the importance of using communication skills in policing situations. CAPRA is integrated into the Incident Management and Intervention Model and its training, as it assists in the primary function of police, which is to help resolve problems. Communication is one of the key factors in achieving this goal, whether a police intervention is necessary or not.

The curriculum builds upon this foundation by introducing cadets to de-escalation skills, which they then apply to a full day of scenarios in which the clients are in various states of emotional distress. They continue to develop and apply their de-escalation skills throughout the remainder of training in Applied Police Sciences, Police Defensive Tactics, and Firearms scenarios.

Cadets are also introduced to intervention and de-escalation techniques specifically designed for managing policing situations in which the client is experiencing a mental health crisis. They are then provided with the opportunity to apply these techniques in scenarios involving an actor portraying a client in crisis due to a mental health issue. In addition, the cadets' ability to apply de-escalation skills are informally and formally assessed at numerous points in the Cadet Training Program.

Cadets learn other intervention options in addition to communication, primarily in Police Defensive Tactics and Firearms. They are guided in the application of these options by the Incident Management and Intervention Model training, CAPRA, and the principles of conducting a continuous risk assessment to ensure public and police safety. The intervention options include police presence, various soft and hard physical control techniques, oleoresin capsicum spray (better known as pepper spray), baton, carotid control technique (also referred to as vascular neck restraint), pistol, shotgun, and carbine. Not only do cadets acquire the skills for performing the techniques and using the tools, but more importantly, they are given many opportunities to apply their understanding of Section 25 of the Criminal Code, CAPRA, and risk assessment in diverse scenarios in which they are informally and formally assessed.

Learn more about the cadet training at Depot.

Learn more about updates to the Cadet Training Program.

In-service training

In-service training provides police officers with the skills required to support their primary duty of preserving and protecting life. Knowing that the primary objective of any intervention is public safety, and that officer safety is essential to public safety, in-service training focuses on the skills required to safely handle the wide range of situations that can occur within a policing landscape. RCMP officers must be prepared to perform under diverse and adverse conditions, in a variety of communities (urban, rural, isolated postings), and use many types of equipment. As a result, regular recertification and mandated refresher training are required throughout an officer's career to maintain their competencies.

The vast number of competencies that must be addressed through in-service training are covered in a host of courses including:

  • crisis intervention and de-escalation
  • core mandatory operational training or block training (including first aid)
  • Incident Management and Intervention Model recertification
  • immediate action rapid deployment
  • initial critical incident response

Intervention option-specific courses include:

  • firearms
  • conducted energy weapons, commonly known as TASER™
  • extended range impact weapons

Training on intervention options must be meaningful, credible, defendable, informed by research (for example, medical, legal, and human factors), and enable on-the-job performance.

Crisis intervention and de-escalation

Police officers are often the first responders on scene when an individual is experiencing a mental health crisis. Police have a critical role to play when responding and interacting with a person with a mental illness or a person in crisis. While police officers are not medical professionals and cannot diagnose individuals, it is important for the police to have an understanding of mental illnesses, including the signs and symptoms of distress, in order to conduct effective risk assessments and de-escalate a mental health crisis, whenever it is tactically feasible.

Addressing the mental health needs of individuals and communities requires empathy, patience, and awareness on the part of first responders. Through crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques, many mental health crises can be managed with decreased risk to the individual, the public, and police officers.

The RCMP has strengthened crisis intervention and de-escalation training for all its officers. Since 2016, an online training course on crisis intervention and de-escalation has been mandatory for all RCMP officers. The course takes approximately three hours and is available through the RCMP's e-learning portal. This mandatory training helps police officers determine when and how to use crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques, and complements the training cadets receive at Depot, as well as other training offered in RCMP divisions and detachments. The purpose of the course is to ensure that RCMP officers will be able to use crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques, when tactically feasible, to effectively manage these situations, including incidents involving a person with a mental illness or a person in crisis. The course includes a module on some of the major mental illnesses and their observable behaviours, which can assist police officers in tailoring their approach to the person in crisis.

Since April 2021, crisis intervention and de-escalation training has been incorporated into annual Incident Management and Intervention Model recertification training. Scenarios involving crisis intervention and de-escalation training are also in place as part of regular, in-person, core mandatory operational training. The RCMP recognizes that even in situations where crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques can be used, additional police intervention may still be necessary to protect the individual or others.

Learn more about this initiative.

The RCMP, like other police agencies, is very supportive of a collaborative approach for people in crisis, and for individuals experiencing symptoms of distress or addiction. Some communities across Canada have mobile mental health support and outreach services, typically in the form of a psychiatric nurse. In areas where a joint mental health response is available, and when situational factors permit, national RCMP policy guidance states that officers should consult with mental health personnel first. However, the establishment of such joint mental health responses is contingent on resources and support from provincial and municipal health services. Mobile mental health resources are not available in all jurisdictions, leaving RCMP officers to respond to these calls unsupported in the vast majority of cases.

Core mandatory operational and block training

Core mandatory operational training is the process for police officers to remain qualified (that is, maintain the certification required to carry intervention options) in the core elements required for policing duties. Officers are required to participate in block training exercises to refresh their skills and must recertify on the use of oleoresin capsicum spray (commonly known as pepper spray), the baton, and the carotid control technique every three years. Officers must also refresh their skills and recertify on the pistol (annually), Incident Management and Intervention Model training (annually; scenario-based training every three years), carotid control technique policy (annually), immediate action rapid deployment, and first aid. The skills delivered in block training build on the prior learning officers acquired during the Cadet Training Program.

Note

A national, standardized program for block training has been developed, and is expected to be implemented across the country by the end of 2023.

Scenario-based training is an effective means of replicating real-life, high-stress situations in a safe and controlled training environment. As part of refresher training, officers complete scenarios, which incorporate real-time decision-making, the Incident Management and Intervention Model, and de-escalation techniques related to mental illnesses or a person in crisis. The scenarios are specifically designed, based on Subject Behaviour and Officer Response data, to represent real police encounters. Officers are expected to conduct a risk assessment in order to determine the level of intervention necessary to control the situation and to then articulate the rationale behind their response based on the totality of the situation. The scenarios are designed to expose officers to a variety of subject behaviours. While some scenarios are designed to be high-stress, low-frequency situations, many more are representative of everyday police interactions requiring officer presence and communication, de-escalation, and/or an intervention using intermediate weapons.

Immediate action rapid deployment

Immediate action rapid deployment training, initially introduced during the Cadet Training Program, provides police officers with the skills necessary to respond to, and intervene in, an active threat incident. Active threats involve individuals who are attempting to claim as many lives and cause as much damage as possible, in a single event. The objective of the training is to learn how to preserve and protect life by stopping the threat. In-service scenario-based training focuses on the integration of activities, skills, and tools to assist in responding to critical incidents.

Initial critical incident response

Initial critical incident response training is designed to teach police officers who are first to arrive at the scene of a critical incident how to take command of the situation, and respond in a logical and methodical fashion. Critical incidents can involve active threats, non-active threats (situations in which an individual or group has the ability and the intent to commit an act of serious violence against a specific target in the immediate future), or life-threatening disasters. The primary objective in every type of critical incident is to preserve and protect life. The training provides instruction regarding the appropriate response methodology based on the specific threat that is being faced.

Intervention option-specific training

In-service training is provided to support the safe and appropriate operation of a range of supplemental tools, including firearms (for example, shotgun, rifle and patrol carbine) and less-lethal intervention options (the conducted energy weapon and extended range impact weapon).

Police intervention options data and trends analysis

Methodology

On May 3, 2023, an extract was taken of the Subject Behaviour and Officer Response database to provide a snapshot of the data for the period of January 1, 2022, to December 31, 2022. The dataset contained information from 5,706 completed Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reports Footnote 2, which included approximately 4,683 occurrences, 5,314 subjects, and 6,938 police intervention options. Any additions, deletions, or modifications made after this date will not be represented in the data.

Trends in police intervention (2010-2022)

In 2022, the RCMP entered approximately 2.9 million occurrences Footnote 3 into RCMP records management systems and there were 2,364 encounters involving reportable applications of police intervention options Footnote 4. Therefore, in 2022, applications of police intervention options accounted for 0.08 per cent of the total number of RCMP occurrences, or one encounter involving police intervention options for every 1,226 occurrences. This indicates that approximately 99.9 per cent of RCMP encounters are resolved naturally or successfully de-escalated by officers without the need for the use of police intervention options.

As per Chart 1, there has been a general decline in the application of police intervention options since 2010. Specifically, compared to 2010 (0.132 per cent), there has been a 38 per cent reduction in the rate of applications of police intervention options. Compared to 2021 (0.076 per cent), the rate of applications of police intervention options slightly increased in 2022 (0.082 per cent).

See Chart 1 - Text version for a breakdown by year.

Note

The RCMP is contracted to provide frontline policing services to all provinces and territories, except for "C" Division (Quebec) and "O" Division (Ontario), as they both have their own provincial police services (Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec). "C" Division, "O" Division, and National Division (the National Capital Region), therefore, typically have low rates of applications of police intervention options given that the RCMP is not the police of primary jurisdiction in these areas. More information on contract policing can be found on the RCMP's website.

In 2022, in the provinces and territories where the RCMP is the police of primary jurisdiction (contract police service), the lowest rate of applications of police intervention options was in Prince Edward Island (0.025 per cent), while the highest rate was in Nunavut (0.223 per cent). See Table 1 for a breakdown by division (province or territory) in 2022.

Chart 1: Application of police intervention option occurrence rate by year

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Year Application of police intervention options
2010 0.132%
2011 0.121%
2012 0.110%
2013 0.096%
2014 0.086%
2015 0.087%
2016 0.082%
2017 0.078%
2018 0.075%
2019 0.075%
2020 0.079%
2021 0.076%
2022 0.082%
Total for the years 0.090%
Table 1: Application of police intervention option occurrence rate by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Application of police intervention options
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0.098%
C Division, Quebec 0.012%
D Division, Manitoba 0.080%
E Division, British Columbia 0.084%
F Division, Saskatchewan 0.075%
G Division, Northwest Territories 0.144%
H Division, Nova Scotia 0.065%
J Division, New Brunswick 0.067%
K Division, Alberta 0.081%
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0.025%
M Division, Yukon 0.081%
National Division, National Capital Region 0%
O Division, Ontario 0.150%
V Division, Nunavut 0.223%
Total 0.082%

Since 2010, there has been an average of approximately 4,600 occurrences each year where police intervention options were used; 2,500 of these occurrences involved an officer applying an intervention option and 2,100 involved an officer drawing and displaying their intervention option as a deterrent (see Chart 2 - Text version for a breakdown by year). The overall use of police intervention options has remained relatively stable over time, with a roughly 50/50 split in recent years in officers applying their intervention options compared to drawing and displaying their intervention options as a deterrent (see Chart 2). See Table 2 for a breakdown by division (province or territory) in 2022.

Chart 2: Police intervention option occurrences by year

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Year Police intervention options
Applied Drawn and displayed (deterrent) only Used (applied and drawn and displayed)
2010 3,555 1,427 4,982
2011 3,227 1,820 5,047
2012 2,980 1,903 4,883
2013 2,598 1,984 4,582
2014 2,326 2,074 4,400
2015 2,406 2,390 4,796
2016 2,236 2,332 4,568
2017 2,128 2,099 4,227
2018 2,202 2,058 4,260
2019 2,295 2,381 4,676
2020 2,337 2,503 4,840
2021 2,274 2,212 4,486
2022 2,364 2,319 4,683
Total for the years 32,928 27,502 60,430
Table 2: Police intervention option occurrences by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Applied Drawn and displayed (deterrent) only Used (applied and drawn and displayed)
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 59 43 102
C Division, Quebec 3 5 8
D Division, Manitoba 161 179 340
E Division, British Columbia 1,007 999 2,006
F Division, Saskatchewan 249 289 538
G Division, Northwest Territories 63 36 99
H Division, Nova Scotia 87 67 154
J Division, New Brunswick 101 108 209
K Division, Alberta 530 525 1,055
L Division, Prince Edward Island 6 9 15
M Division, Yukon 19 15 34
National Division, National Capital Region 0 3 3
O Division, Ontario 4 4 8
V Division, Nunavut 75 37 112
Total 2,364 2,319 4,683

The yearly rate of officers' use of intervention options more clearly demonstrates the downward trend in applications of police intervention options, and the increase in deterrence (see Chart 3). Specifically, Chart 3 - Text version indicates that in 2010, in the majority of cases involving the use of police intervention options (71 per cent), the intervention was applied; whereas 29 per cent of the time the intervention option was only drawn and displayed. However, by 2022, half (50 per cent) of occurrences involved the application of an intervention option and half (50 per cent) involved the use of drawing and displaying an intervention option.

In 2022, in the provinces and territories where the RCMP is the police of primary jurisdiction, the rate of drawing and displaying intervention options as a deterrent ranged from 33 per cent in Nunavut to 60 per cent in Prince Edward Island. See Table 3 for a breakdown by division (province or territory) in 2022.

Chart 3: Police intervention option breakdown by year

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Year Police intervention options
Applied Drawn and displayed (deterrent) only
2010 71% 29%
2011 64% 36%
2012 61% 39%
2013 57% 43%
2014 53% 47%
2015 50% 50%
2016 49% 51%
2017 50% 50%
2018 52% 48%
2019 49% 51%
2020 48% 52%
2021 51% 49%
2022 50% 50%
Total for the years 54% 46%
Table 3: Police intervention option breakdown by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Applied Drawn and displayed (deterrent) only
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 58% 42%
C Division, Quebec 38% 63%
D Division, Manitoba 47% 53%
E Division, British Columbia 50% 50%
F Division, Saskatchewan 46% 54%
G Division, Northwest Territories 64% 36%
H Division, Nova Scotia 56% 44%
J Division, New Brunswick 48% 52%
K Division, Alberta 50% 50%
L Division, Prince Edward Island 40% 60%
M Division, Yukon 56% 44%
National Division, National Capital Region 0% 100%
O Division, Ontario 50% 50%
V Division, Nunavut 67% 33%
Total 50% 50%

Situational factors Footnote 5 (2022)

Occurrence types

In the occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, the most common occurrence types were assaults on police officers (18 per cent), followed by occurrences related to the Mental Health Act (12 per cent), and assaults (9 per cent; see Table 4).

Table 4: Most common occurrence types in 2022
Most common occurrence types Count Percentage
Assault on police officer 419 18%
Mental Health Act 292 12%
Assault 204 9%
Resists or obstructs peace officer 159 7%
Break and enter 151 6%
Weapons-related offence 142 6%
Assault with weapon or causing bodily harm 117 5%
Assault on police officer with weapon or causing bodily harm 107 5%
Mischief 79 3%
Uttering threats against a person 69 3%
Cause a disturbance 62 3%
Dangerous operation of a motor vehicle 45 2%
Breach 37 2%
Possession of property obtained by crime over $5000 33 1%
Disarming a police officer 18 1%

Gender

In the occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, most subjects were perceived to be men (88.8 per cent), followed by women (11.0 per cent), other (0.1 per cent), and unknown (0.2 per cent).

Persons in crisis

Persons in crisis refer to those in an agitated state due to any or several of the following reasons: (1) a person who, through their actions, conduct, and speech would appear to a reasonable and prudent person to not be in control of their emotional and/or mental faculties, (2) a person whom the officer knows to be under professional treatment for emotional or mental disorders, and/or (3) a person whom the officer, based upon credible information or documentation, perceives to be emotionally or mentally unstable. In occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, 30.9 per cent of subjects were perceived to be in crisis (see Chart 4). In the provinces and territories where the RCMP is the police of primary jurisdiction, the per cent of subjects that were perceived to be in crisis ranged from 12.5 per cent in the Yukon to 50.0 per cent in Prince Edward Island. See Table 5 for a breakdown by division (province or territory).

Note

The RCMP updated our Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting system on October 23, 2022 to change the term "emotionally disturbed person" to "person in crisis".

Learn more about the RCMP's work to support greater integration of community, health, and social services.

Chart 4: Subjects perceived to be in crisis in 2022

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Was the subject perceived to be in crisis? Percentage
Yes 30.9%
No 69.1%
Table 5: Subjects perceived to be in crisis by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Subject perceived to be in crisis
Yes No Total
Count Percentage Count Percentage Count Percentage
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 25 41.7% 35 58.3% 60 100%
C Division, Quebec 0 0% 3 100% 3 100%
D Division, Manitoba 59 33.7% 116 66.3% 175 100%
E Division, British Columbia 321 31.2% 708 68.8% 1,029 100%
F Division, Saskatchewan 68 25.2% 202 74.8% 270 100%
G Division, Northwest Territories 13 18.6% 57 81.4% 70 100%
H Division, Nova Scotia 41 45.1% 50 54.9% 91 100%
J Division, New Brunswick 36 34.3% 69 65.7% 105 100%
K Division, Alberta 167 30.1% 387 69.9% 554 100%
L Division, Prince Edward Island 3 50% 3 50% 6 100%
M Division, Yukon 3 12.5% 21 87.5% 24 100%
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
O Division, Ontario 1 16.7% 5 83.3% 6 100%
V Division, Nunavut 26 34.2% 50 65.8% 76 100%
Total 763 30.9% 1,706 69.1% 2,469 100%

Substance use

In occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, 67.5 per cent of subjects were perceived to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and/or inhalants (see Chart 5). In the provinces and territories where the RCMP is the police of primary jurisdiction, the per cent of subjects that were perceived to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and/or inhalants was highest in Prince Edward Island (100 per cent), followed by the Northwest Territories (84.3 per cent), and Saskatchewan (79.3 per cent). See Table 6 for a breakdown by division (province or territory).

Chart 5: Subjects perceived to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and/or inhalants in 2022

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Was the subject perceived to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and/or inhalants? Percentage
Yes 67.5%
No 32.5%
Table 6: Subjects perceived to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and/or inhalants by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Subject perceived to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol and/or inhalants
Yes No Total
Count Percentage Count Percentage Count Percentage
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 47 78.3% 13 21.7% 60 100%
C Division, Quebec 1 33.3% 2 66.7% 3 100%
D Division, Manitoba 127 72.6% 48 27.4% 175 100%
E Division, British Columbia 606 58.9% 423 41.1% 1,029 100%
F Division, Saskatchewan 214 79.3% 56 20.7% 270 100%
G Division, Northwest Territories 59 84.3% 11 15.7% 70 100%
H Division, Nova Scotia 66 72.5% 25 27.5% 91 100%
J Division, New Brunswick 65 61.9% 40 38.1% 105 100%
K Division, Alberta 397 71.7% 157 28.3% 554 100%
L Division, Prince Edward Island 6 100% 0 0% 6 100%
M Division, Yukon 19 79.2% 5 20.8% 24 100%
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
O Division, Ontario 0 0% 6 100% 6 100%
V Division, Nunavut 59 77.6% 17 22.4% 76 100%
Total 1,666 67.5% 803 32.5% 2,469 100%

Weapons

In occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, 53.0 per cent of subjects were perceived to be in possession of a weapon (see Chart 6). In the provinces and territories where the RCMP is the police of primary jurisdiction, the per cent of subjects that were perceived to be in possession of a weapon ranged from 20.0 per cent in the Northwest Territories to 58.7 per cent in British Columbia. See Table 7 for a breakdown by division (province or territory).

Chart 6: Subjects perceived to be in possession of a weapon in 2022

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Was the subject perceived or believed to be in possession of a weapon? Percentage
Yes 53%
No 47%
Table 7: Subjects perceived or believed to be in possession of a weapon by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Subject perceived or believed to be in possession of a weapon
Yes No Total
Count Percentage Count Percentage Count Percentage
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 22 36.7% 38 63.3% 60 100%
C Division, Quebec 0 0% 3 100% 3 100%
D Division, Manitoba 80 45.7% 95 54.3% 175 100%
E Division, British Columbia 604 58.7% 425 41.3% 1,029 100%
F Division, Saskatchewan 118 43.7% 152 56.3% 270 100%
G Division, Northwest Territories 14 20% 56 80% 70 100%
H Division, Nova Scotia 52 57.1% 39 42.9% 91 100%
J Division, New Brunswick 56 53.3% 49 46.7% 105 100%
K Division, Alberta 318 57.4% 236 42.6% 554 100%
L Division, Prince Edward Island 3 50% 3 50% 6 100%
M Division, Yukon 10 41.7% 14 58.3% 24 100%
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
O Division, Ontario 1 16.7% 5 83.3% 6 100%
V Division, Nunavut 30 39.5% 46 60.5% 76 100%
Total 1,308 53% 1,161 47% 2,469 100%

Intervention options (2022)

Physical control soft

Physical control soft techniques may be used to cause distraction in order to facilitate the application of a control technique. Distraction techniques include, but are not limited to, open hand strikes and pressure points. Physical control soft techniques also include escorting and/or come-along techniques, joint locks, soft takedowns, and non-resistant handcuffing, which have a lower probability of causing injury. Physical control soft is only required to be reported when it results in an injury to the subject, officer, or other person; however, officers often report these interventions, even without an injury, to demonstrate an escalation and/or de-escalation in police intervention.

In 2022, reportable physical control soft techniques were used by officers 363 times. Specifically, officers applied pressure points 19 times (5.2 per cent), joint locks 41 times (11.3 per cent), soft takedowns 171 times (47.1 per cent), escort or come-along techniques 80 times (22.0 per cent), soft stuns or strikes 5 times (1.4 per cent), soft control technique - head 3 times (0.8 per cent), soft control technique - arm(s) 31 times (8.5 per cent), soft control technique - body 11 times (3.0 per cent), and soft control technique - leg(s) 2 times (0.6 per cent). See Chart 7 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). Reportable physical control soft techniques accounted for 5.2 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 11.9 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 7: Physical control soft usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Pressure points Joint locks Soft takedown Escort or come-along techniques Soft stuns or strikes Soft control technique - head Soft control technique - arm(s) Soft control technique - body Soft control technique - leg(s) Total
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0 2 2 5 0 1 2 0 0 12
C Division, Quebec 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
D Division, Manitoba 3 1 7 7 0 0 0 2 0 20
E Division, British Columbia 3 8 63 14 2 0 10 3 1 104
F Division, Saskatchewan 4 8 26 10 1 1 7 4 0 61
G Division, Northwest Territories 0 2 9 9 0 1 1 0 1 23
H Division, Nova Scotia 3 3 7 3 0 0 2 2 0 20
J Division, New Brunswick 0 1 2 2 1 0 2 0 0 8
K Division, Alberta 6 10 45 23 1 0 7 0 0 92
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
M Division, Yukon 0 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 6
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
V Division, Nunavut 0 4 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 13
Total 19 41 171 80 5 3 31 11 2 363
Note

To ensure more detailed reporting, the RCMP updated our Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting system on October 23, 2022, to include additional physical control soft deployment types: "soft stuns or strikes", "soft control technique - head", "soft control technique - arm(s)", "soft control technique - body", "soft control technique - leg(s)". These new physical control soft deployment types will therefore not capture incidents that took place prior to the date the changes were made in the reporting system; these counts are therefore not reflective of the entire year.

Physical control hard

Physical control hard techniques are intended to stop (or change) a subject's behaviour or allow the application of a control technique, and have a higher probability of causing injury to both parties involved. They may include hard takedowns and empty hand strikes such as punches and kicks. The carotid control technique, also referred to as the vascular neck restraint, is also a physical control hard technique. However, RCMP training and policy limit the use of this technique to times where an officer fears grievous bodily harm or death for themselves or any other person. The carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint is not a chokehold or respiratory restraint. Rather, the carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint is "a technique that applies lateral compression to the vascular structure of the subject's neck resulting in partial or complete occlusion of the carotid arteries, as well as the occlusion of the jugular veins" Footnote 6. Importantly, a properly applied carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint "will not compress or harm the structures located in the anterior portion of the throat, nor is it likely to cause harm to the cervical vertebrae; the subject's ability to breathe is not adversely affected during vascular neck restraint compression" Footnote 6. When properly applied, the carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint "is neither likely nor intended to cause serious medical outcomes" Footnote 6. The RCMP does not teach or endorse any technique where RCMP officers place a knee on the head or neck. This applies to the teaching of cadets at the RCMP Academy, Depot Division, as well as in-service training and police intervention re-certification. In 2016, the carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint training was reviewed by the RCMP to ensure best practices are employed, based on current police intervention option trends in Canada and in the law enforcement community.

On June 10, 2021, former RCMP Commissioner Lucki publicly stated that the RCMP would review its use of the carotid control or vascular neck restraint technique. As part of this review, the RCMP participated in a study with a group of experienced police use of force researchers, including both criminologists and physicians, to provide a valid estimate of the incidence of injuries, including operational and training settings, related to the carotid control or vascular neck restraint technique. This included an examination of all RCMP operational applications of the carotid control or vascular neck restraint technique from 2010 to 2021, as well as approximately 400,000 applications of the techniques in RCMP training from 2010 to 2019. The RCMP's involvement in this study provided objective medical evidence of the risks and benefits of this intervention. Based on the medical review of data from the RCMP and two other law enforcement agencies in the United States, the researchers determined that "vascular neck restraint use by trained [law enforcement officers] is both safe and effective." This is critical to making evidence-based policy decisions.

Note

Learn more about the research study, Safety of Vascular Neck Restraint applied by law enforcement officers.

Note

In November 2022 the RCMP published a stand-alone carotid control technique operational policy. Previously, the carotid control technique was found in the Less Lethal Use of Force section of the Incident Management and Intervention Model policy.

While the carotid control technique is a less lethal intervention option, moving the carotid control technique policy to a stand-alone section of the Incident Management and Intervention Model policy ensures that RCMP employees differentiate the use of carotid control from other less lethal options.

This policy provides new guidance to RCMP officers on:

  • the risks of applying the technique on medically high-risk groups
  • the requirement to recertify annually on the policy regarding the application of the technique, as part of annual Incident Management and Intervention Model recertification

The new policy also directs RCMP officers to request a medical health assessment by locally available medical resources, as soon as possible, following the application of the carotid control technique. This assessment must be sought if the technique was attempted or fully applied, regardless of whether or not the subject was rendered unconscious.

In 2022, physical control hard techniques were used by officers 900 times. Specifically, officers applied hard stuns and strikes 649 times (72.1 per cent), hard takedowns 215 times (23.9 per cent), the carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint 15 times (1.7 per cent), hard control technique - head 3 times (0.3 per cent), hard control technique - arm(s) 10 times (1.1 per cent), hard control technique - body 5 times (0.6 per cent), and hard control technique - leg(s) 3 times (0.3 per cent). With regard to the carotid control technique or vascular neck restraint, of the 15 times it was applied in 2022, only 4 (27%) of these applications rendered the subject unconscious and one subject was injured (scrapes and bruises), but no medical treatment was required. See Chart 8 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). Physical control hard techniques accounted for 13.0 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 29.6 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 8: Physical control hard usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Hard stuns or strikes Hard takedown Carotid control or vascular neck restraint Hard control technique - head Hard control technique - arm(s) Hard control technique - body Hard control technique - leg(s) Total
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 14 6 0 0 0 0 0 20
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 57 15 0 0 1 0 0 73
E Division, British Columbia 251 70 7 2 2 3 1 336
F Division, Saskatchewan 80 33 3 1 3 1 1 122
G Division, Northwest Territories 26 5 0 0 0 0 0 31
H Division, Nova Scotia 22 6 2 0 0 0 1 31
J Division, New Brunswick 9 8 0 0 1 0 0 18
K Division, Alberta 163 63 3 0 2 1 0 232
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
M Division, Yukon 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 9
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3
V Division, Nunavut 22 1 0 0 0 0 0 23
Total 649 215 15 3 10 5 3 900
Note

To ensure more detailed reporting, the RCMP updated our Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting system on October 23, 2022, to include additional physical control hard deployment types: "hard control technique - head," "hard control technique - arm(s)," "hard control technique - body," "hard control technique - leg(s)." These new physical control hard deployment types will therefore not capture incidents that took place prior to the date the changes were made in the reporting system; these counts are therefore not reflective of the entire year.

Intermediate weapons (2022)

Oleoresin capsicum spray and the baton fall within this heading, along with less lethal weapons, whose primary use is not intended to cause serious injury or death. Less lethal weapons include the conducted energy weapon and the extended range impact weapon.

Oleoresin capsicum spray

Oleoresin capsicum spray (commonly known as pepper spray) is one of the intermediate weapons carried by RCMP officers. It has an effective range of 1 to 3 metres; therefore, officers must be close to the subject prior to deployment.

In 2022, oleoresin capsicum spray was used by officers 308 times, of which it was applied 294 times (95.5 per cent). Oleoresin capsicum spray is rarely used as a deterrent (for example, drawn and displayed or pointed) having only been used 14 times (4.5 per cent) for this purpose. See Chart 9 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). In 2022, oleoresin capsicum spray accounted for 4.4 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 9.7 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 9: Oleoresin capsicum spray usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Drawn and displayed Pointed at subject Applied Total
Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 17 19
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 0 1 20 21
E Division, British Columbia 1 2 135 138
F Division, Saskatchewan 0 1 30 31
G Division, Northwest Territories 0 0 9 9
H Division, Nova Scotia 0 2 12 14
J Division, New Brunswick 0 1 1 2
K Division, Alberta 2 2 53 57
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 1 1
M Division, Yukon 0 0 2 2
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0 0
V Division, Nunavut 0 0 14 14
Total 4 10 294 308

Baton

The baton is another intermediate weapon carried by RCMP officers. The baton can be deployed in either closed mode or open mode (when the baton is extended). Open mode provides more distance between the officer and the person it is being used on. The baton is deployed from 0 to 2 feet; therefore, officers must be close to the person prior to deployment.

The baton is rarely used by officers. In 2022, the baton was used 36 times, of which it was applied 30 times (83.3 per cent), and used as a deterrent (drawn and displayed or pointed at subject) 6 times (16.7 per cent). See Chart 10 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). The baton accounted for 0.5 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 1.0 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 10: Baton usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Drawn and displayed Pointed at subject Applied Total
Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 1 0 2 3
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 0 0 1 1
E Division, British Columbia 4 0 13 17
F Division, Saskatchewan 0 0 7 7
G Division, Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0
H Division, Nova Scotia 0 0 1 1
J Division, New Brunswick 1 0 0 1
K Division, Alberta 0 0 5 5
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
M Division, Yukon 0 0 0 0
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0 0
V Division, Nunavut 0 0 1 1
Total 6 0 30 36

Conducted energy weapon

One of the less lethal intermediate weapons carried by officers is the conducted energy weapon, commonly known as the TASER™. The RCMP has been using conducted energy weapons since 2001. In the past several years there have been technological advancements made in the field of conducted energy weapons and the RCMP continues to research and pilot the newest models on the market to ensure that officers are equipped with the most effective less lethal intervention options available. Since 2005, officers have been equipped with the TASER X26™. As of October 2022, the RCMP has been employing a phased approach to equip officers with the TASER 7™, a new, modernized conducted energy weapon. The transition from the TASER X26™ to the TASER 7™ is expected to be complete in 2024.

RCMP officers are trained to deploy the conducted energy weapon in three ways:

  • Probe mode means that a conducted energy weapon is deployed by discharging and propelling two electrical probes, equipped with small barbs that hook onto a subject's clothing or skin, allowing electrical energy to be transferred to that subject
  • Contact mode means that the conducted energy weapon is deployed by pressing or pushing an activated conducted energy weapon onto a subject, allowing electrical energy to be transferred to that subject. Contact mode may include pressing or pushing the conducted energy weapon with or without a cartridge inserted
  • Three-point contact mode means that the conducted energy weapon is deployed by firing the two probes at close range, then moving the conducted energy weapon away from the probes to press or push the conducted energy weapon onto another part of the body
Note

The new TASER 7™ differs in how it can deployed. Like the TASER X26™, it can also be deployed in probe mode and in contact stun mode. However, it is not generally used in three-point contact mode. Instead, the TASER 7™ can utilize a multiple cartridge deployment. The TASER 7™ has the ability to shoot two pairs of electrical probes, meaning that up to four probes could be deployed for one subject.

Current RCMP conducted energy weapon policy states that the conducted energy weapon may only be used in circumstances where a subject is causing bodily harm, as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code Footnote 7, or if the officer believes on reasonable grounds that the subject will imminently cause bodily harm, as determined by the officer's assessment of the totality of the situation.

The conducted energy weapon provides RCMP officers with the ability, in some situations, to communicate with the individual from a distance as the TASER X26™ and the TASER 7™ have an optimal deployment range from 7 to 15 feet. This allows for the use of crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques, where tactically feasible. Conducted energy weapon training is continually reviewed by the RCMP to ensure best practices are employed, based on current police intervention option trends and advancements in Canada and in the law enforcement community. Crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques are included in RCMP conducted energy weapon training, including the scenario-based training portion. As well, with the TASER 7™ transition, RCMP officers are being introduced to Community Engagement Training through a virtual reality platform. This is supplemental to scenario-based training, and provides members with a broad range of de-escalation situations and how to manage them successfully.

In 2022, the conducted energy weapon was used by officers 1,657 times. Specifically, officers used the conducted energy weapon as a deterrent (drawn and displayed, pointed at subject, laser sight activated, or spark or arc display activated) 757 times (45.7 per cent). The conducted energy weapon was deployed in probe mode 800 times (48.3 per cent) and in contact mode 100 times (6.0 per cent). See Chart 11 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). The conducted energy weapon accounted for 23.9 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 29.6 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 11: Conducted energy weapon by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Drawn and displayed Pointed at subject Laser sight activated Spark or arc display activated Contact mode deployed Probe deployed Total
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 5 8 3 0 1 24 41
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 18 51 8 0 12 73 162
E Division, British Columbia 79 156 45 1 38 314 633
F Division, Saskatchewan 26 49 17 2 5 91 190
G Division, Northwest Territories 1 7 4 0 0 13 25
H Division, Nova Scotia 5 23 8 0 3 40 79
J Division, New Brunswick 16 15 9 0 7 45 92
K Division, Alberta 31 100 27 0 25 160 343
L Division, Prince Edward Island 1 3 0 0 0 2 6
M Division, Yukon 0 9 0 0 2 5 16
National Division, National Capital Region 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
V Division, Nunavut 13 9 5 2 6 33 68
Total 196 430 126 5 100 800 1,657
Note

To ensure more detailed reporting, the RCMP updated our Subject Behaviour and Officer Response reporting system on October 23, 2022, to modify an existing conducted energy weapon deployment type: "spark display activated" was modified to "spark or arc display activated" to account for an additional feature available on the new TASER 7™ that some RCMP officers have been equipped with beginning in October, 2022.

Extended range impact weapon

The RCMP continually reviews police intervention option trends and advancements within Canada and in the law enforcement community. Based on these reviews the RCMP researches and conducts pilot studies on different less lethal intervention options. In 2017, the RCMP began a pilot project examining the utility of the 40 mm (sponge-tipped round) extended range impact weapon for general duty (frontline patrol officer) applications. Prior to the pilot, only Emergency Response Teams and the Tactical Support Group carried the extended range impact weapon. The extended range impact weapon has only been fired once in a public order setting by the RCMP (during the Anti-immigration protest in Ottawa in 2018). The driving factor in piloting the extended range impact weapon for general duty was to provide officers with an intervention option that could be used from a longer distance. The goal is to provide more time and distance from the person the officer is dealing with to allow for de-escalation and communication, when tactically feasible. Crisis intervention and de-escalation techniques are included in RCMP training on the 40 mm extended range impact weapon. The RCMP does not possess nor use rubber bullets.

In 2022, the extended range impact weapon was used 112 times, of which it was applied 58 times (51.8 per cent) and used as a deterrent (drawn and displayed or pointed at subject) 54 times (48.2 per cent). See Chart 12 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). The extended range impact weapon accounted for 1.6 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 1.9 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 12: Extended range impact weapon usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Drawn and displayed Pointed at subject Applied Total
Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 1 1
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 0 1 0 1
E Division, British Columbia 7 16 37 60
F Division, Saskatchewan 1 2 5 8
G Division, Northwest Territories 0 4 0 4
H Division, Nova Scotia 0 1 1 2
J Division, New Brunswick 0 0 2 2
K Division, Alberta 5 15 11 31
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
M Division, Yukon 0 2 0 2
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0 0
V Division, Nunavut 0 0 1 1
Total 13 41 58 112

Specialty munitions (2022)

General duty (frontline patrol) RCMP officers do not use specialty munitions. The specialty munitions category is used to capture the use of chemical munitions, such as 2-chlorobenzalmalonitrile (that is, CS gas, also commonly known as tear gas). They are limited to specialized groups such as Emergency Response Teams and the Tactical Support Group, who must pass a chemical munitions course during their training to be eligible to deploy them, and must re-certify annually. CS gas irritates the mucous membranes causing a burning sensation in the eyes, nose, and throat, as well as nasal discharge, and tearing and closing of the eyes. The use of this tool during critical incidents Footnote 8 reduces the risk to officers having to enter an unknown dwelling or structure. CS gas is rarely used in public order settings, and is only used under exceptional circumstances at the direction of the Critical Incident Commander. Since 2010, the RCMP has only deployed CS gas during two public order events - the 2011 Stanley Cup riots, and in February, 2022, during the Trucker Convoy occupation of Ottawa. The use of this tool in a public-order setting reduces the risk to public and officer safety, and assists in dispersing riotous crowds.

In 2022, specialty munitions were used 78 times. See Chart 13 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). Specialty munitions accounted for 1.1 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 2.5 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 13: Specialty munitions usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Specialty munitions
Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0
C Division, Quebec 0
D Division, Manitoba 10
E Division, British Columbia 44
F Division, Saskatchewan 2
G Division, Northwest Territories 0
H Division, Nova Scotia 9
J Division, New Brunswick 1
K Division, Alberta 11
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0
M Division, Yukon 0
National Division, National Capital Region 1
O Division, Ontario 0
V Division, Nunavut 0
Total 78

"Other" (2022)

The "other" category captures an RCMP officer using a weapon of opportunity (that is, items that they do not carry as a standard intervention option, but were available at the scene), such as a flashlight, rather than a police-issued intervention option. An officer may use such an intervention, for example, when they are involved in a struggle on the ground and are unable to access their standard intervention equipment.

In 2022, "other" intervention options were used 43 times. See Chart 14 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). "Other" intervention options accounted for 0.6 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 1.4 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 14: "Other" intervention option (weapon of opportunity) usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Other (weapon of opportunity)
Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0
C Division, Quebec 0
D Division, Manitoba 1
E Division, British Columbia 14
F Division, Saskatchewan 8
G Division, Northwest Territories 1
H Division, Nova Scotia 3
J Division, New Brunswick 2
K Division, Alberta 14
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0
M Division, Yukon 0
National Division, National Capital Region 0
O Division, Ontario 0
V Division, Nunavut 0
Total 43

Police service dog (2022)

Police service dogs are first and foremost a searching and tracking tool. They are used to search for subjects who have fled the scene of an investigation, subjects who are hiding or attempting to evade apprehension, and missing persons. They are also used to locate narcotics, explosives, and human remains. The RCMP has a total of 157 team positions in Police Dog Services across the country. Of those, 141 were general duty and 16 were Specialty Detection Teams (narcotics, explosives, avalanche, and human remains) in 2022. There are also 12 municipal teams fully integrated and providing service for the RCMP in the lower mainland of British Columbia.

Police Dog Services handlers are responsible for their police service dog, and must always keep the dog under control. When the police service dog is deployed for the purpose of criminal apprehension, it is with the expectation that the dog, if required, will engage the subject with a bite. Often this is not required, as the presence and warning of the police service dog alone (identification of the dog by its handler, or the dog's bark) will achieve the required change in behaviour. If a police service dog is deployed and the subject's behaviour changes, the dog handler can recall their dog prior to a bite. Like other intermediate intervention options, the dog handler is required to report deployments of their dog when they believe their presence resulted in a behaviour change from the subject, regardless of whether they were deployed for the purpose of a criminal apprehension, in accordance with Subject Behaviour and Officer Response policy.

All potential dog handlers attend the Police Dog Services Training Centre, located in Innisfail, Alberta. The potential dog handlers must complete the Basic Dog Handler Course (for a new handler training a potential police service dog), which is a mandatory 85-day course. Once the dog handler has successfully completed the course, they must complete a minimum of eight hours per week of Police Dog Services team training during their scheduled work hours. General duty Police Dog Services teams are required to complete an annual validation for all profiles, including tracking, obedience, evidence searching, person search in a building or compound, and apprehension. In addition, each general duty team will be validated on one of the following detection designation profiles: narcotics, explosives, avalanche, or human remains. Specialty detection teams validate annually on the obedience and their detection designation profiles. Specialty detection teams are not trained in the apprehension profile. The apprehension profile includes two exercises. The first exercise is a "call off," which consists of the team demonstrating pre-bite control prior to the police service dog being commanded to apprehend a fleeing subject. The police service dog must then abort the approach without making contact with the subject on the dog handler's verbal command. The second exercise is an apprehension exercise, which consists of the team demonstrating pre-bite control while dealing with an uncooperative subject. The police service dog must remain in a position of control until given the command to apprehend the subject. The police service dog must release on the verbal command of the dog handler and demonstrate post-bite control while the handler conducts a search and escort of the subject.

In 2022, police service dogs were used as a police intervention option 710 times. Specifically, they were applied (bite) 373 times (52.5 per cent) and used as a deterrent (presence or track only) 337 times (47.5 per cent). See Chart 15 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). Police service dogs accounted for 10.2 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A) and 12.3 per cent of all police intervention options applied (see Appendix B).

Chart 15: Police service dog usage by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Presence only Track only Bite Total
Count Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 1 1
C Division, Quebec 0 0 1 1
D Division, Manitoba 0 1 6 7
E Division, British Columbia 162 95 210 467
F Division, Saskatchewan 6 7 16 29
G Division, Northwest Territories 1 0 3 4
H Division, Nova Scotia 0 5 5 10
J Division, New Brunswick 0 1 32 33
K Division, Alberta 18 41 97 156
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 1 1
M Division, Yukon 0 0 1 1
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0 0
V Division, Nunavut 0 0 0 0
Total 187 150 373 710

Firearm (2022)

This intervention option primarily involves the use of conventional police firearms (for example, duty pistol, shotgun, rifle, patrol carbine). RCMP officers are trained to only use their firearms when they fear grievous bodily harm or death to themselves or any other person. With their firearm drawn and displayed or pointed at a person, an officer may attempt to de-escalate a situation through communication while being prepared to deploy lethal force, if necessary, based on the totality of the situation. Often, a firearm may be drawn and/or pointed at a person while another officer attempts crisis intervention de-escalation using communication, and/or uses other less lethal intervention options.

In 2022, firearms were used as a deterrent (drawn and displayed or pointed at a subject) by officers 2,732 times. See Chart 16 - Text version for a breakdown by division (province or territory). Firearms, when used as a deterrent, accounted for 39.4 per cent of all police intervention options used (see Appendix A).

Chart 16: Firearm usage (excluding officer-involved shootings) by division (province or territory) in 2022

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Division (province or territory) Deployment type
Drawn and displayed Pointed at subject Total
Count Count Count
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 26 27 53
C Division, Quebec 4 6 10
D Division, Manitoba 84 140 224
E Division, British Columbia 273 570 843
F Division, Saskatchewan 161 308 469
G Division, Northwest Territories 8 25 33
H Division, Nova Scotia 34 40 74
J Division, New Brunswick 32 95 127
K Division, Alberta 270 563 833
L Division, Prince Edward Island 4 3 7
M Division, Yukon 12 8 20
National Division, National Capital Region 4 3 7
O Division, Ontario 1 3 4
V Division, Nunavut 10 18 28
Total 923 1,809 2,732

Officer-involved shootings (2022)

Communication, de-escalation, and less lethal intervention options are invaluable tools in ensuring that the public and police are as safe as possible; unfortunately, this does not always resolve a situation, and lethal force (that is, the discharge of a firearm) may be required. In incidents involving serious injury or death, the RCMP Act mandates that an independent civilian investigative body or external police force conduct an investigation. The RCMP will continue to review all external investigative reports and their recommendations so that necessary amendments to policy, training, equipment, and standards can be adopted to enhance public and police safety.

Officer-involved shooting trends (2010-2022)

As per Chart 17, the officer involved shooting occurrence rate has fluctuated across the years since 2010. Compared to 2021 (0.0010 per cent), there was an increase in the rate of officer-involved shooting occurrences in 2022 (0.0015 per cent). Officers discharged a firearm resulting in a fatality in 0.0006 per cent of occurrences in 2022, which is a slight increase from 2021 (0.0005 per cent) and above the 13-year average, however these are still generally rare. For example, in 2022, officers discharged a firearm in approximately one in 66,000 occurrences and discharged a firearm resulting in a fatality in approximately one in 170,000 occurrences. See Chart 17 - Text version for a breakdown by year.

Chart 17: Officer-involved shooting occurrence rate by year

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Year Officer-involved shootings
Fatal Total
2010 0.0002% 0.0004%
2011 0.0003% 0.0008%
2012 0.0002% 0.0006%
2013 0.0002% 0.0005%
2014 0.0001% 0.0008%
2015 0.0003% 0.0012%
2016 0.0002% 0.0005%
2017 0.0004% 0.0010%
2018 0.0002% 0.0007%
2019 0.0003% 0.0010%
2020 0.0005% 0.0007%
2021 0.0005% 0.0010%
2022 0.0006% 0.0015%
Total for the years 0.0003% 0.0008%

From 2010 to 2022, RCMP officers were involved in 304 officer-involved shootings (an average of 23 shootings per year), of which 113 (an average of 9 shootings per year) resulted in the death of the subject (see Chart 18 - Text version). In 2022, RCMP officers were involved in 44 officer-involved shootings, of which 17 resulted in the death of the subject. The number of subject fatalities is slightly higher than in 2021 and corresponds with a significant rise in officer-involved shootings where the subject(s) discharged a firearm (see below). British Columbia accounted for 45.5 per cent of all officer-involved shootings and 52.9 per cent of fatalities in 2022, and Alberta accounted for 22.7 per cent of all officer-involved shootings and 23.5 per cent of fatalities. The frequency of officer-involved shootings in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan corresponds with the number of officer-involved shootings where the subject(s) discharged a firearm (see below). See Table 8 for a breakdown by division (province or territory) in 2022.

Chart 18: Officer-involved shooting occurrences by year

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Year Officer-involved shootings
Non-fatal Fatal Total
2010 6 6 12
2011 13 7 20
2012 11 6 17
2013 9 5 14
2014 19 4 23
2015 24 8 32
2016 8 5 13
2017 18 10 28
2018 13 7 20
2019 23 9 32
2020 6 14 20
2021 14 15 29
2022 27 17 44
Total for the years 191 113 304
Note

The non-fatal category includes seven subjects that died from self-inflicted injuries, not from police discharge of a firearm. One fatal occurrence in 2016 involved the death of two subjects, for a total of 114 fatalities since 2010.

Table 8: Officer-involved shooting occurrences by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Non-fatal Fatal Total
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 2 1 3
E Division, British Columbia 11 9 20
F Division, Saskatchewan 5 2 7
G Division, Northwest Territories 0 0 0
H Division, Nova Scotia 1 0 1
J Division, New Brunswick 0 0 0
K Division, Alberta 6 4 10
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 0
M Division, Yukon 2 1 3
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0
V Division, Nunavut 0 0 0
Total 27 17 44

From 2010 to 2022, there were 143 officer-involved shootings (an average of 11 per year), where the subject(s) discharged a firearm (see Chart 19). In 2022, the number of subject(s) who discharged a firearm increased to 24 incidents, the highest it has been in 13 years. These incidents in 2022 resulted in three officers being non-fatally shot. Alberta accounted for 37.5 per cent, and British Columbia and Saskatchewan each accounted for 25.0 per cent of all officer-involved shootings where a subject discharged a firearm in 2022. See Table 9 for a breakdown by division (province or territory) in 2022.

Chart 19: Officer-involved shooting breakdown (where a subject discharged a firearm) by year

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Year Officer-involved shootings
Subject(s) discharged a firearm Officers non-fatally shot Officers fatally shot
2010 6 0 0
2011 12 4 0
2012 11 2 0
2013 2 0 0
2014 12 6 3
2015 7 2 1
2016 7 1 0
2017 7 0 0
2018 11 2 0
2019 8 2 0
2020 18 3 1
2021 18 0 0
2022 24 3 0
Total for the years 143 25 5
Table 9: Officer-involved shooting breakdown (where a subject discharged a firearm) by division (province or territory) in 2022
Division (province or territory) Subject(s) discharged a firearm Officers non-fatally shot Officers fatally shot
B Division, Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0
C Division, Quebec 0 0 0
D Division, Manitoba 1 0 0
E Division, British Columbia 6 1 0
F Division, Saskatchewan 6 1 0
G Division, Northwest Territories 0 0 0
H Division, Nova Scotia 0 0 0
J Division, New Brunswick 0 0 0
K Division, Alberta 9 0 0
L Division, Prince Edward Island 0 0 0
M Division, Yukon 2 1 0
National Division, National Capital Region 0 0 0
O Division, Ontario 0 0 0
V Division, Nunavut 0 0 0
Total 24 3 0

Injury proximal to the application of police intervention options (2022)

Officer injury proximal to the application of police intervention options

In occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, excluding officer-involved shootings (see above), 414 officers (15.3 per cent) were injured. This includes 12 (0.4 per cent) who were admitted to hospital. The majority of officers (84.6 per cent) were not injured proximal to the application of police intervention options in 2022 (see Table 10).

Table 10: Officer injury proximal to the application of police intervention options in 2022
Officer injury Count Percentage
No injury 2,269 84.6%
No treatment required 275 10.2%
Treated and released 127 4.7%
Admitted to hospital 12 0.4%
Total 2,683 100%

Subject injury proximal to the application of police intervention options

In occurrences where police intervention options were applied in 2022, excluding officer-involved shootings (see above), 820 (33.2 per cent) subjects were injured. This includes 371 (15.0 per cent) who were transported to a hospital or clinic for treatment related to police intervention. The majority of subjects (66.8 per cent) were not injured proximal to the application of police intervention options in 2022 (see Table 11).

Table 11: Subject injury proximal to the application of police intervention options in 2022
Subject injury Count Percentage
No injury 1,649 66.8%
Refused treatment 35 1.4%
No treatment required 180 7.3%
Treated and released at scene or cells 183 7.4%
Transported to hospital or clinic - for condition (see note) only 51 2.1%
Transported to hospital or clinic - for condition (see note) and injury related to police intervention 108 4.4%
Transported to hospital or clinic - for injury related to police intervention 263 10.7%
Total 2,683 100%
Note

Condition refers to persons in crisis, drugs or alcohol, and/or a pre-existing injury that is unrelated to police intervention.

In-custody deaths proximal to the application of police intervention options (2022)

An in-custody death is defined as an incident where a person died while under police care and control, arrest, and/or detention, or while in a police facility or transport. In 2022, excluding officer-involved shootings (see above), there were two in-custody deaths proximal to the application of police intervention options. One incident occurred in Alberta and is being investigated by the Alberta Serious Incident Response Team. The second incident occurred in British Columbia and was investigated by the Independent Investigations Office of British Columbia (see Oversight and accountability below for more details). The external review releases and/or reports are available at the links below:

  1. Investigation continues into death after RCMP involvement in Sundre (still under investigation)
  2. Death of a male while being apprehended by members of the RCMP in Burnaby, British Columbia, on December 16, 2022 (2022-340) (case status: closed)

Oversight and accountability

The RCMP Act provides legislated internal and external review processes to deal with issues related to officer conduct. There are also the Commissioner's Standing Orders, and operational and administrative policies in addition to the RCMP Act provisions that govern officer conduct. These processes ensure RCMP officers are accountable for all occurrences involving the use of police intervention options, including officer-involved shootings. The conduct process is found in Part IV of the RCMP Act, while the Code of Conduct is found in the RCMP Regulations. The Code of Conduct, which applies to every officer of the RCMP, establishes responsibilities and the standards for conduct, both on and off duty.

The Public Complaints Process, found in Part VII of the RCMP Act stipulates that any individual may make a public complaint concerning the on-duty conduct of any RCMP officer in the performance of their duties. Public complaints can be made directly to the RCMP, to the Civilian Review and Complaints Commission for the RCMP, or to the provincial authority that is responsible for the receipt of complaints against the police in the province in which the subject matter of the complaint arose. The Chairperson for the Civilian Review and Complaints Commission may initiate a public complaint, if satisfied that there are reasonable grounds and it is in the public's interest to investigate an officer's conduct. Public Complaint investigations are normally completed by an officer in a supervisory rank, while Code of Conduct investigations are normally completed by experienced RCMP officers who have completed the Workplace Responsibility Investigation Course. The Serious Incidents protocol is found in Part VII.1 of the RCMP Act and mandates that an independent civilian investigative body (for example, Independent Investigations Office of British Columbia, Nova Scotia Serious Incident Response Team) or external police force conduct the investigation, whenever there is a:

  1. serious injury or death of an individual involving an RCMP officer
  2. where it appears that an RCMP officer may have contravened a provision of the Criminal Code or other statute and the matter is of a serious or sensitive nature

If there is no investigative body or other police force to investigate, Serious Incidents may be investigated by the RCMP. Internal reviews may also be completed using police intervention subject matter experts or through an Independent Officer Review. An Independent Officer Review is an administrative review (fact-finding inquiry) of an officer's actions and their application of the Incident Management and Intervention Model, policies, and training that is conducted by a commissioned officer or delegate who is independent of the incident.

The RCMP Act, Commissioner's Standing Orders, and related policies, are designed to ensure transparency, accountability, and openness - mandating that an independent civilian agency or external law enforcement body conduct the investigation whenever possible. More information on public complaints can be found on the RCMP public website.

Current and ongoing initiatives

To promote trust, transparency, and accountability in Canada, the RCMP is committed to open and proactive disclosure of data related to annual use of police intervention options. Tangible operational change will be driven by promoting investments in evidence-based policy, training, equipment, and standards for police intervention and de-escalation across the country. Accordingly, the RCMP will continue to proactively monitor police intervention option data and make evidence-based decisions to improve public and police safety.

Ongoing efforts are underway to modernize and standardize police intervention and de-escalation models, frameworks, and training to assist in strengthening public trust. For example, in the fall of 2020, the RCMP and the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police established a National Police Chiefs' Roundtable forum for national policing leadership to work collectively on issues of importance to Canadians and the policing community. The Task Group on De-escalation and Crisis Intervention (hereinafter referred to as "the Task Group") - a sub-table of the National Police Chiefs' Roundtable - has started work to re-examine the RCMP's current police intervention and de-escalation framework, with the goal of moving towards a refreshed model developed in collaboration with partners and stakeholders. In August 2021, the Task Group's efforts resulted in a Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police resolution on de-escalation and crisis intervention.

Learn more about the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police's resolution on de-escalation and crisis intervention.

Note

On May 27, 2022, the former RCMP Commissioner Brenda Lucki received a mandate letter commitment from the former Minister of Public Safety, The Honourable Marco Mendicino, to "[develop] national standards for the use-of-force" and "[support] the development of national standards on crisis intervention, [conduct] an external review on de-escalation and [identify] the tools and training necessary to implement them."

Learn more about the former RCMP Commissioner's mandate letter.

Note

In December 2022, a representative of the RCMP became the new co-chair of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Use of Force Advisory Committee. The mandate of the Use of Force Advisory Committee is to provide advice and counsel on matters related to police use of force, including consideration of use-of-force technology and use-of-force modalities such as techniques, policies, procedures, and practices.

Learn more about the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Use of Force Advisory Committee.

Following briefings by the Task Group, the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Board of Directors approved that the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police facilitate public consultations on de-escalation through an identified third-party consultant. These consultations would include the provinces and territories, as well as Indigenous and racialized communities. The Task Group has endorsed increased collaboration with the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Use of Force Advisory Committee to further promote working toward an improved model and national framework.

The RCMP will continue to work in partnership with the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Use of Force Advisory Committee and external academic partners to establish national minimum standards on the use of force and to conduct a review of de-escalation training (for example, identifying evidence-based best practices) across Canada.

The RCMP's National Police Intervention Unit is committed to ensuring the RCMP is using the latest evidence-based training in the area of crisis intervention and de-escalation. Further, the National Police Intervention Unit, the Operational Research Unit, and the Learning and Development directorate of the RCMP continue to explore peer-reviewed research, promising practices, training, and technology to determine additional strategies to bolster crisis intervention and de-escalation training for RCMP officers. This on-going review is being conducted to ensure that the RCMP is aligned with best practices and to continually evolve our crisis intervention and de-escalation training to improve public and police safety.

National leadership and a commitment by all levels of government for de-escalation training will be important to meet the expectations of the Canadian public. Through a preservation of life and human-centered policing approach, Canadian police have opportunities for improvement through increased public transparency, enhanced decision-making and de-escalation training, modernized intervention options that enhance de-escalation, and after-action oversight and accountability.

Appendices

Appendix A

Table 12: Breakdown of police intervention options used in 2022
Officer response Deployment type Count Percentage
Physical control soft Pressure points 19 0.3%
Joint locks 41 0.6%
Takedown 171 2.5%
Escort or come-along techniques 80 1.2%
Stuns or strikes 5 0.1%
Control technique - head 3 0%
Control technique - arm(s) 31 0.4%
Control technique - body 11 0.2%
Control technique - leg(s) 2 0%
Total 363 5.2%
Physical control hard Stuns or strikes 649 9.4%
Takedown 215 3.1%
Carotid control or vascular neck restraint 15 0.2%
Control technique - head 3 0%
Control technique - arm(s) 10 0.1%
Control technique - body 5 0.1%
Control technique - leg(s) 3 0%
Total 900 13%
Oleoresin capsicum spray Draw and display 4 0.1%
Pointed at subject 10 0.1%
Applied 294 4.2%
Total 308 4.4%
Baton Draw and display 6 0.1%
Pointed at subject 0 0%
Applied 30 0.4%
Total 36 0.5%
Conducted energy weapon Draw and display 196 2.8%
Pointed at subject 430 6.2%
Laser sight activated 126 1.8%
Spark or arc display activated 5 0.1%
Contact mode deployed 100 1.4%
Probe deployed 800 11.5%
Total 1,657 23.9%
Extended range impact weapon Draw and display 13 0.2%
Pointed at subject 41 0.6%
Applied 58 0.8%
Total 112 1.6%
Specialty munitions 78 1.1%
"Other" intervention option (weapon of opportunity) 43 0.6%
Police service dog Presence only 187 2.7%
Track only 150 2.2%
Bite 373 5.4%
Total 710 10.2%
Police firearm (excluding officer-involved shootings) Draw and display 923 13.3%
Pointed at subject 1809 26.1%
Total 2,732 39.4%
Total 6,939 100%

Appendix B

Table 13: Breakdown of police intervention options applied in 2022
Officer response Deployment type Count Percentage
Physical control soft Pressure points 19 0.6%
Joint locks 41 1.3%
Takedown 171 5.6%
Escort or come-along techniques 80 2.6%
Stuns or strikes 5 0.2%
Control technique - head 3 0.1%
Control technique - arm(s) 31 1%
Control technique - body 11 0.4%
Control technique - leg(s) 2 0.1%
Total 363 11.9%
Physical control hard Stuns or strikes 649 21.4%
Takedown 215 7.1%
Carotid control or vascular neck restraint 15 0.5%
Control technique - head 3 0.1%
Control technique - arm(s) 10 0.3%
Control technique - body 5 0.2%
Control technique - leg(s) 3 0.1%
Total 900 29.6%
Oleoresin capsicum spray Applied 294 9.7%
Baton Applied 30 1%
Conducted energy weapon Contact mode deployed 100 3.3%
Probe deployed 800 26.3%
Total 900 29.6%
Extended range impact weapon Applied 58 1.9%
Specialty munitions 78 2.6%
"Other" intervention option (weapon of opportunity) 43 1.4%
Police service dog Bite 373 12.3%
Total 3,039 100%
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